MULTEXT-East Morphosyntactic Specifications

3.1. English Specifications

Up: 3. Language Specific MULTEXT Specifications Next: 3.2. Romanian Specifications

Table of contents

Nancy Ide, Greg Priest-Dorman, Tomaž Erjavec, Tamas Varadi

2018-11-12

Language Name:
English
Code:
en
Reference:
Wikipedia

3.1.1. English Category Index

3.1.1.1. Table of categories
CATEGORY (en)Value (en)Code (en)Attributes
CATEGORYNounN3
CATEGORYVerbV5
CATEGORYAdjectiveA2
CATEGORYPronounP8
CATEGORYDeterminerD6
CATEGORYAdverbR3
CATEGORYAdpositionS1
CATEGORYConjunctionC2
CATEGORYNumeralM1
CATEGORYInterjectionI0
CATEGORYAbbreviationY0
CATEGORYResidualX0
CATEGORYPunctuationZ0

3.1.2. English Noun

Specification for English Noun
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYNounN
1Typecommonc
properp
2Gendermasculinem
femininef
neutern
3Numbersingulars
pluralp
3.1.2.1. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (19)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
NcNoun Type=common4Portuguese, o, Flemish, Dutch
Nc-sNoun Type=common Number=singular115winner, wholesaler, welder, ward, Vietnamese
Nc-pNoun Type=common Number=plural88winners/winner, wholesalers/wholesaler, welders/welder, wards/ward, victims/victim
NcmNoun Type=common Gender=masculine5Taiwanese, Sudanese, next-of-kin, eldest, deceased
NcmsNoun Type=common Gender=masculine Number=singular118widower, welterweight, volunteer, viscount, vice-chairman
NcmpNoun Type=common Gender=masculine Number=plural85widowers/widower, welterweights/welterweight, viscounts/viscount, tenors/tenor, teamsters/teamster
NcfNoun Type=common Gender=feminine5Taiwanese, Sudanese, next-of-kin, eldest, deceased
NcfsNoun Type=common Gender=feminine Number=singular119wren, woman, wife, widow, whore
NcfpNoun Type=common Gender=feminine Number=plural82wrens/wren, women/woman, wives/wife, widows/widow, whores/whore
NcnNoun Type=common Gender=neuter82zebra, youth, yen, works, winnings
NcnsNoun Type=common Gender=neuter Number=singular11786zoo, zoom, zoology, zoologist, zone
NcnpNoun Type=common Gender=neuter Number=plural9696zoos/zoo, zooms/zoom, zoologists/zoologist, zones/zone, zombies/zombie
NpNoun Type=proper1087Zurich, Zulu, Zug, Zion, Zimbabwe
Np-sNoun Type=proper Number=singular1nazi
Np-pNoun Type=proper Number=plural1nazis
NpmsNoun Type=proper Gender=masculine Number=singular4tom, oliver, norman, martin
NpfsNoun Type=proper Gender=feminine Number=singular1julia
NpnsNoun Type=proper Gender=neuter Number=singular85Yule, Xmas, winston, wilsher, Whitsun
NpnpNoun Type=proper Gender=neuter Number=plural2Olympics, negroids/negroid

3.1.3. English Verb

Specification for English Verb
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYVerbV
1Typemainm
auxiliarya
modalo
baseb
2VFormindicativei
conditionalc
infinitiven
participlep
3Tensepresentp
pasts
4Personfirst1
second2
third3
5Numbersingulars
pluralp
3.1.3.1. Notes

These tags do not attempt to represent distinctions found in the various compound verb-forms. These are composed of a sequence of auxiliary and non-finite verb as follows:

futurewill/shall + base
conditionalwould/should + base
passivebe + past participle
perfecthave + past participle
past perfecthave-past + past participle
present continuousbe + present participle
infinitiveto + base

So there is no "aspect" attribute or "future" value, for example.

3.1.3.2. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (30)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
VmipVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present3nose, lacquered/lacquer, daren't/dare+not
Vmip-pVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present Number=plural4105zoom, zip, zigzag, yodel, yield
Vmip1sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=first Number=singular4104zoom, zip, zigzag, yodel, yield
Vmip2sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=second Number=singular4105zoom, zip, zigzag, yodel, yield
Vmip3sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=third Number=singular4103zooms/zoom, zips/zip, zigzags/zigzag, yodels/yodel, yields/yield
VmisVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past4159zoomed/zoom, zipped/zip, zigzagged/zigzag, yodelled/yodel, yielded/yield
Vmis-pVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past Number=plural2weren't/be+not, were/be
Vmis1sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=first Number=singular3wass/be, wasn't/be+not, was/be
Vmis2sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=second Number=singular2weren't/be+not, were/be
Vmis3sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=third Number=singular3wass/be, wasn't/be+not, was/be
VmcsVerb Type=main VForm=conditional Tense=past1weren't/be+not
VmnVerb Type=main VForm=infinitive4105zoom, zip, zigzag, yodel, yield
VmnpVerb Type=main VForm=infinitive Tense=present1be
VmppVerb Type=main VForm=participle Tense=present4118zooming/zoom, zipping/zip, zigzagging/zigzag, yodelling/yodel, yielding/yield
VmpsVerb Type=main VForm=participle Tense=past4168zoomed/zoom, zipped/zip, zigzagged/zigzag, yodelled/yodel, yielded/yield
VaipVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present3oughter/have, 'A/have, 'a/have
Vaip-pVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present Number=plural14've/have, 're/be, haven't/have+not, have, dont/do
Vaip1sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=first Number=singular13've/have, 'm/be, haven't/have+not, have, dont/do
Vaip2sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=second Number=singular13're/be, haven't/have+not, have, dont/do, don't/do+not
Vaip3sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=third Number=singular12's/have, 's/be, isn't/be+not, is/be, hasn't/have+not
VaisVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past7hadn't/have+not, had/have, didnt/do+not, didn't/do+not, did/do
Vais-pVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past Number=plural2weren't/be+not, were/be
Vais1sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=first Number=singular3wass/be, wasn't/be+not, was/be
Vais2sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=second Number=singular2weren't/be+not, were/be
Vais3sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=third Number=singular3wass/be, wasn't/be+not, was/be
VacsVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=conditional Tense=past1were/be
VanVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=infinitive8have, do, d', be, 'Ave
VappVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=participle Tense=present3having/have, doing/do, being/be
VapsVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=participle Tense=past2done/do, been/be
VoipVerb Type=modal VForm=indicative Tense=present22would, wouldn't/would+not, won't/will+not, will, should

3.1.4. English Adjective

Specification for English Adjective
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYAdjectiveA
1Typequalificativef
2Degreepositivep
comparativec
superlatives
3.1.4.1. Notes

Gender, number and case irrelevant for English.

Attributive/predicative distinction reflects positional constraints - some adjectives ('mere', 'utter', etc.) only appear in prenominal position, while others ('awake', 'devoid', etc.) only appear in predicative position. Most can appear in either.

Since many English comparatives and superlatives are formed with more/most, "positive" cannot be interpreted as "neither comparative nor superlative". See "Adverbs".

3.1.4.2. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (4)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
AfAdjective Type=qualificative865zany, young, yellow, yeasty, wry
AfpAdjective Type=qualificative Degree=positive8533zoological, zonal, Zionist, Zimbabwean, zigzag
AfcAdjective Type=qualificative Degree=comparative919zanier/zany, younger/young, yellower/yellow, yeastier/yeasty, wrinklier/wrinkly
AfsAdjective Type=qualificative Degree=superlative723zaniest/zany, youngest/young, yellowest/yellow, wriest/wry, worthiest/worthy

3.1.5. English Pronoun

Specification for English Pronoun
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYPronounP
1Typepersonalp
possessives
interrogativeq
relativer
reflexivex
generalg
ex-theret
2Personfirst1
second2
third3
3Gendermasculinem
femininef
neutern
4Numbersingulars
pluralp
5Casenominativen
accusativea
6Owner_Numbersingulars
pluralp
7Owner_Gendermasculinem
femininef
17Wh_Typerelativer
questionq
3.1.5.1. Notes

"General" pronouns are those which are not personal, possessive, demonstrative or reflexive. The choice of these four categories is based on distributional facts, though at a rather high level of abstraction. They enter into anaphoric dependencies which are signalled morphosyntactically and are therefore (in principle) more amenable to automatic detection. Most general pronouns do not, although they too sometimes encode number information.

"WH" attribute added to allow for combination of possessive and WH in "whose".

3.1.5.2. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (46)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
Pp---------------rPronoun Type=personal Wh_Type=relative2who, whoever
Pp---------------qPronoun Type=personal Wh_Type=question2who, whoever
Pp---a-----------rPronoun Type=personal Case=accusative Wh_Type=relative1whom
Pp---a-----------qPronoun Type=personal Case=accusative Wh_Type=question1whom
Pp--snPronoun Type=personal Number=singular Case=nominative1me
Pp--pnPronoun Type=personal Number=plural Case=nominative1they
Pp1-snPronoun Type=personal Person=first Number=singular Case=nominative1I
Pp1-pnPronoun Type=personal Person=first Number=plural Case=nominative1we
Pp1-paPronoun Type=personal Person=first Number=plural Case=accusative1us
Pp2Pronoun Type=personal Person=second1you
Pp2--aPronoun Type=personal Person=second Case=accusative1thee/you
Pp2-pPronoun Type=personal Person=second Number=plural1thou
Pp3-paPronoun Type=personal Person=third Number=plural Case=accusative3them, 'Em/them, 'em/them
Pp3msPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular1one
Pp3msnPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular Case=nominative1he
Pp3msaPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular Case=accusative5'Im/him, 'im/him, him, 'E/he, 'e/he
Pp3fsPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular1one
Pp3fsnPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular Case=nominative1she
Pp3fsaPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular Case=accusative3her, 'Er/her, 'er/her
Pp3nsPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=neuter Number=singular1it
Ps3Pronoun Type=possessive Person=third1yours
Ps3--------------rPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Wh_Type=relative1whose
Ps3--------------qPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Wh_Type=question1whose
Ps3---sPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular1mine
Ps3---smPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=masculine2'is/his, his
Ps3---sfPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=feminine1hers
Ps3---pPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=plural2theirs, ours
Px1-sPronoun Type=reflexive Person=first Number=singular1myself
Px1-pPronoun Type=reflexive Person=first Number=plural1ourselves
Px2-sPronoun Type=reflexive Person=second Number=singular1yourself
Px2-pPronoun Type=reflexive Person=second Number=plural1yourselves
Px3-sPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Number=singular2oneself, meself
Px3-pPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Number=plural1themselves
Px3msPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular3isself/himself, 'isself/himself, himself
Px3fsPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular1herself
Px3nsPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Gender=neuter Number=singular1itself
Pg3--------------rPronoun Type=general Person=third Wh_Type=relative3which, whichever, whatever
Pg3--------------qPronoun Type=general Person=third Wh_Type=question4which, whichever, what, whatever
Pg3-sPronoun Type=general Person=third Number=singular1another
Pg3-pPronoun Type=general Person=third Number=plural2several, others
Pg3msPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular5someone, somebody, no-one, nobody, anybody
Pg3fsPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular5someone, somebody, no-one, nobody, anybody
Pg3nPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=neuter5some, none, most, any, all
Pg3nsPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=neuter Number=singular14tis/this, this, that, something, nothing
Pg3npPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=neuter Number=plural5those, these, many, few, both
Pt3Pronoun Type=ex-there Person=third1there

3.1.6. English Determiner

Specification for English Determiner
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYDeterminerD
1Typedemonstratived
indefinitei
possessives
generalg
2Personfirst1
second2
third3
4Numbersingulars
pluralp
6Owner_Numbersingulars
pluralp
7Owner_Gendermasculinem
femininef
neutern
10Wh_Typerelativer
questionq
3.1.6.1. Notes

Definite and indefinite articles represented as values of "Type".

3.1.6.2. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (16)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
DdDeterminer Type=demonstrative1the
DiDeterminer Type=indefinite2an/a, a
Ds--------rDeterminer Type=possessive Wh_Type=relative1whose
Ds--------qDeterminer Type=possessive Wh_Type=question1whose
Ds1---sDeterminer Type=possessive Person=first Owner_Number=singular1my
Ds1---pDeterminer Type=possessive Person=first Owner_Number=plural1our
Ds2Determiner Type=possessive Person=second1your
Ds3---smDeterminer Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=masculine2'is/his, his
Ds3---sfDeterminer Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=feminine3her, 'Er/her, 'er/her
Ds3---snDeterminer Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=neuter1its
Ds3---pDeterminer Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=plural1their
DgDeterminer Type=general4some, no, each, any
Dg--------rDeterminer Type=general Wh_Type=relative2which, whichever
Dg--------qDeterminer Type=general Wh_Type=question4which, whichever, what, whatever
Dg--sDeterminer Type=general Number=singular10tis/this, this, that, neither, much
Dg--pDeterminer Type=general Number=plural10those, these, such, other, most

3.1.7. English Adverb

Specification for English Adverb
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYAdverbR
1Typemodifierm
specifiers
2Degreepositivep
comparativec
superlatives
6Wh_Typerelativer
questionq
3.1.7.1. Notes

No distinction has been made between different types of "modifier" adverbs ("sentence-modifying", "VP-modifying", etc.), since their distributions overlap considerably.

3.1.7.2. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (9)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
R-p---qAdverb Degree=positive Wh_Type=question3'Ow, 'ow, how
RmpAdverb Type=modifier Degree=positive3882zoologically, zealously, zanily, youthfully, youngly
Rmp---rAdverb Type=modifier Degree=positive Wh_Type=relative3where, whereupon, when
Rmp---qAdverb Type=modifier Degree=positive Wh_Type=question3why, where, when
RmcAdverb Type=modifier Degree=comparative2worse, better
RmsAdverb Type=modifier Degree=superlative2worst, best
RspAdverb Type=specifier Degree=positive5very, too, so, much, as
RscAdverb Type=specifier Degree=comparative2more, less
RssAdverb Type=specifier Degree=superlative2most, least

3.1.8. English Adposition

Specification for English Adposition
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYAdpositionS
1Typeprepositionp
postpositiont
3.1.8.1. Notes

Postpositions are rare in English.

"possessive" 's and ' might be considered postpositions, especially if the alternative is to assign them to the unique membership class (where by definition they would be unrelated).

3.1.8.2. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (2)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
SpAdposition Type=preposition89with, without, within, vis-à-vis, via
StAdposition Type=postposition5's/have, notwithstanding, '/have, away, ago

3.1.9. English Conjunction

Specification for English Conjunction
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYConjunctionC
1Typecoordinatingc
subordinatings
3Coord_Typeinitiali
non-initialn
3.1.9.1. Notes

Subordinating conjunctions are often identical to prepositions (before, after, since, ...).

3.1.9.2. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (4)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
CcConjunction Type=coordinating1as
Cc-iConjunction Type=coordinating Coord_Type=initial2neither, either
Cc-nConjunction Type=coordinating Coord_Type=non-initial5than, or, nor, but, and
CsConjunction Type=subordinating52yet, whilst, while, whether, where

3.1.10. English Numeral

Specification for English Numeral
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYNumeralM
1Typecardinalc
ordinalo
3.1.10.1. Notes

These have not been subsumed under adjectives, pronouns, determiners, etc. because the internal structure of complex numerals is idiosyncratic.

3.1.10.2. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (2)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
McNumeral Type=cardinal40zero, two, twenty, twenty-seven, twenty-five
MoNumeral Type=ordinal33twentieth, twelfth, trillionth, thousandth, thirtieth

3.1.11. English Interjection

Specification for English Interjection
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYInterjectionI
3.1.11.1. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (1)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
IInterjection14oh-o-o-o-oh, oh, hullo, hi, 'em

3.1.12. English Abbreviation

Specification for English Abbreviation
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYAbbreviationY
3.1.12.1. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (1)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
YAbbreviation1Dr.

3.1.13. English Residual

Specification for English Residual
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYResidualX

3.1.14. English Punctuation

Specification for English Punctuation
PAttribute (en)Value (en)Code (en)
0CATEGORYPunctuationZ
3.1.14.1. MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSDs (1)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
ZPunctuation10), (, ", ., ..

3.1.15. English Attribute Index

In this section all the attributes presented in the tables are listed in alphabetical order.

3.1.15.1. Table of attributes
Attribute (en)Category (en)Position
CasePronoun5
Coord_TypeConjunction3
DegreeAdjective2
DegreeAdverb2
GenderNoun2
GenderPronoun3
NumberDeterminer4
NumberNoun3
NumberPronoun4
NumberVerb5
Owner_GenderDeterminer7
Owner_GenderPronoun7
Owner_NumberDeterminer6
Owner_NumberPronoun6
PersonDeterminer2
PersonPronoun2
PersonVerb4
TenseVerb3
TypeAdjective1
TypeAdposition1
TypeAdverb1
TypeConjunction1
TypeDeterminer1
TypeNoun1
TypeNumeral1
TypePronoun1
TypeVerb1
VFormVerb2
Wh_TypeAdverb6
Wh_TypeDeterminer10
Wh_TypePronoun17

3.1.16. English Value Index

The values presented within the tables are, in the following, listed in alphabetical order; the first column gives the name of the value, the second column its code and the third lists attributes for which the value is appropriate.

3.1.16.1. Table of values
Value (en)Code (en)Attribute (en)Category (en)
accusativeaCasePronoun
auxiliaryaTypeVerb
basebTypeVerb
cardinalcTypeNumeral
commoncTypeNoun
comparativecDegreeAdjective
comparativecDegreeAdverb
conditionalcVFormVerb
coordinatingcTypeConjunction
demonstrativedTypeDeterminer
ex-theretTypePronoun
femininefGenderNoun
femininefGenderPronoun
femininefOwner_GenderDeterminer
femininefOwner_GenderPronoun
first1PersonDeterminer
first1PersonPronoun
first1PersonVerb
generalgTypeDeterminer
generalgTypePronoun
indefiniteiTypeDeterminer
indicativeiVFormVerb
infinitivenVFormVerb
initialiCoord_TypeConjunction
interrogativeqTypePronoun
mainmTypeVerb
masculinemGenderNoun
masculinemGenderPronoun
masculinemOwner_GenderDeterminer
masculinemOwner_GenderPronoun
modaloTypeVerb
modifiermTypeAdverb
neuternGenderNoun
neuternGenderPronoun
neuternOwner_GenderDeterminer
nominativenCasePronoun
non-initialnCoord_TypeConjunction
ordinaloTypeNumeral
participlepVFormVerb
pastsTenseVerb
personalpTypePronoun
pluralpNumberDeterminer
pluralpNumberNoun
pluralpNumberPronoun
pluralpNumberVerb
pluralpOwner_NumberDeterminer
pluralpOwner_NumberPronoun
positivepDegreeAdjective
positivepDegreeAdverb
possessivesTypeDeterminer
possessivesTypePronoun
postpositiontTypeAdposition
prepositionpTypeAdposition
presentpTenseVerb
properpTypeNoun
qualificativefTypeAdjective
questionqWh_TypeAdverb
questionqWh_TypeDeterminer
questionqWh_TypePronoun
reflexivexTypePronoun
relativerTypePronoun
relativerWh_TypeAdverb
relativerWh_TypeDeterminer
relativerWh_TypePronoun
second2PersonDeterminer
second2PersonPronoun
second2PersonVerb
singularsNumberDeterminer
singularsNumberNoun
singularsNumberPronoun
singularsNumberVerb
singularsOwner_NumberDeterminer
singularsOwner_NumberPronoun
specifiersTypeAdverb
subordinatingsTypeConjunction
superlativesDegreeAdjective
superlativesDegreeAdverb
third3PersonDeterminer
third3PersonPronoun
third3PersonVerb

3.1.17. English MSD Index

This index gives the complete list of morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and their features. In the table below, the first column gives the MSD, the second its expansion into a feature-structure, the third gives the number of entries in the lexicon (71,784 entries), and the fourth gives some examples as word-form/lemma. The list was extracted form the English MULTEXT-East lexicon.

MSD Index (136)
MSDFeaturesTypesExamples
NcNoun Type=common4Portuguese, o, Flemish, Dutch
Nc-sNoun Type=common Number=singular115winner, wholesaler, welder, ward, Vietnamese
Nc-pNoun Type=common Number=plural88winners/winner, wholesalers/wholesaler, welders/welder, wards/ward, victims/victim
NcmNoun Type=common Gender=masculine5Taiwanese, Sudanese, next-of-kin, eldest, deceased
NcmsNoun Type=common Gender=masculine Number=singular118widower, welterweight, volunteer, viscount, vice-chairman
NcmpNoun Type=common Gender=masculine Number=plural85widowers/widower, welterweights/welterweight, viscounts/viscount, tenors/tenor, teamsters/teamster
NcfNoun Type=common Gender=feminine5Taiwanese, Sudanese, next-of-kin, eldest, deceased
NcfsNoun Type=common Gender=feminine Number=singular119wren, woman, wife, widow, whore
NcfpNoun Type=common Gender=feminine Number=plural82wrens/wren, women/woman, wives/wife, widows/widow, whores/whore
NcnNoun Type=common Gender=neuter82zebra, youth, yen, works, winnings
NcnsNoun Type=common Gender=neuter Number=singular11786zoo, zoom, zoology, zoologist, zone
NcnpNoun Type=common Gender=neuter Number=plural9696zoos/zoo, zooms/zoom, zoologists/zoologist, zones/zone, zombies/zombie
NpNoun Type=proper1087Zurich, Zulu, Zug, Zion, Zimbabwe
Np-sNoun Type=proper Number=singular1nazi
Np-pNoun Type=proper Number=plural1nazis
NpmsNoun Type=proper Gender=masculine Number=singular4tom, oliver, norman, martin
NpfsNoun Type=proper Gender=feminine Number=singular1julia
NpnsNoun Type=proper Gender=neuter Number=singular85Yule, Xmas, winston, wilsher, Whitsun
NpnpNoun Type=proper Gender=neuter Number=plural2Olympics, negroids/negroid
VmipVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present3nose, lacquered/lacquer, daren't/dare+not
Vmip-pVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present Number=plural4105zoom, zip, zigzag, yodel, yield
Vmip1sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=first Number=singular4104zoom, zip, zigzag, yodel, yield
Vmip2sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=second Number=singular4105zoom, zip, zigzag, yodel, yield
Vmip3sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=third Number=singular4103zooms/zoom, zips/zip, zigzags/zigzag, yodels/yodel, yields/yield
VmisVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past4159zoomed/zoom, zipped/zip, zigzagged/zigzag, yodelled/yodel, yielded/yield
Vmis-pVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past Number=plural2weren't/be+not, were/be
Vmis1sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=first Number=singular3wass/be, wasn't/be+not, was/be
Vmis2sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=second Number=singular2weren't/be+not, were/be
Vmis3sVerb Type=main VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=third Number=singular3wass/be, wasn't/be+not, was/be
VmcsVerb Type=main VForm=conditional Tense=past1weren't/be+not
VmnVerb Type=main VForm=infinitive4105zoom, zip, zigzag, yodel, yield
VmnpVerb Type=main VForm=infinitive Tense=present1be
VmppVerb Type=main VForm=participle Tense=present4118zooming/zoom, zipping/zip, zigzagging/zigzag, yodelling/yodel, yielding/yield
VmpsVerb Type=main VForm=participle Tense=past4168zoomed/zoom, zipped/zip, zigzagged/zigzag, yodelled/yodel, yielded/yield
VaipVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present3oughter/have, 'A/have, 'a/have
Vaip-pVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present Number=plural14've/have, 're/be, haven't/have+not, have, dont/do
Vaip1sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=first Number=singular13've/have, 'm/be, haven't/have+not, have, dont/do
Vaip2sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=second Number=singular13're/be, haven't/have+not, have, dont/do, don't/do+not
Vaip3sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=third Number=singular12's/have, 's/be, isn't/be+not, is/be, hasn't/have+not
VaisVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past7hadn't/have+not, had/have, didnt/do+not, didn't/do+not, did/do
Vais-pVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past Number=plural2weren't/be+not, were/be
Vais1sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=first Number=singular3wass/be, wasn't/be+not, was/be
Vais2sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=second Number=singular2weren't/be+not, were/be
Vais3sVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=indicative Tense=past Person=third Number=singular3wass/be, wasn't/be+not, was/be
VacsVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=conditional Tense=past1were/be
VanVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=infinitive8have, do, d', be, 'Ave
VappVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=participle Tense=present3having/have, doing/do, being/be
VapsVerb Type=auxiliary VForm=participle Tense=past2done/do, been/be
VoipVerb Type=modal VForm=indicative Tense=present22would, wouldn't/would+not, won't/will+not, will, should
AfAdjective Type=qualificative865zany, young, yellow, yeasty, wry
AfpAdjective Type=qualificative Degree=positive8533zoological, zonal, Zionist, Zimbabwean, zigzag
AfcAdjective Type=qualificative Degree=comparative919zanier/zany, younger/young, yellower/yellow, yeastier/yeasty, wrinklier/wrinkly
AfsAdjective Type=qualificative Degree=superlative723zaniest/zany, youngest/young, yellowest/yellow, wriest/wry, worthiest/worthy
Pp---------------rPronoun Type=personal Wh_Type=relative2who, whoever
Pp---------------qPronoun Type=personal Wh_Type=question2who, whoever
Pp---a-----------rPronoun Type=personal Case=accusative Wh_Type=relative1whom
Pp---a-----------qPronoun Type=personal Case=accusative Wh_Type=question1whom
Pp--snPronoun Type=personal Number=singular Case=nominative1me
Pp--pnPronoun Type=personal Number=plural Case=nominative1they
Pp1-snPronoun Type=personal Person=first Number=singular Case=nominative1I
Pp1-pnPronoun Type=personal Person=first Number=plural Case=nominative1we
Pp1-paPronoun Type=personal Person=first Number=plural Case=accusative1us
Pp2Pronoun Type=personal Person=second1you
Pp2--aPronoun Type=personal Person=second Case=accusative1thee/you
Pp2-pPronoun Type=personal Person=second Number=plural1thou
Pp3-paPronoun Type=personal Person=third Number=plural Case=accusative3them, 'Em/them, 'em/them
Pp3msPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular1one
Pp3msnPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular Case=nominative1he
Pp3msaPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular Case=accusative5'Im/him, 'im/him, him, 'E/he, 'e/he
Pp3fsPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular1one
Pp3fsnPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular Case=nominative1she
Pp3fsaPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular Case=accusative3her, 'Er/her, 'er/her
Pp3nsPronoun Type=personal Person=third Gender=neuter Number=singular1it
Ps3Pronoun Type=possessive Person=third1yours
Ps3--------------rPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Wh_Type=relative1whose
Ps3--------------qPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Wh_Type=question1whose
Ps3---sPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular1mine
Ps3---smPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=masculine2'is/his, his
Ps3---sfPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=feminine1hers
Ps3---pPronoun Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=plural2theirs, ours
Px1-sPronoun Type=reflexive Person=first Number=singular1myself
Px1-pPronoun Type=reflexive Person=first Number=plural1ourselves
Px2-sPronoun Type=reflexive Person=second Number=singular1yourself
Px2-pPronoun Type=reflexive Person=second Number=plural1yourselves
Px3-sPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Number=singular2oneself, meself
Px3-pPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Number=plural1themselves
Px3msPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular3isself/himself, 'isself/himself, himself
Px3fsPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular1herself
Px3nsPronoun Type=reflexive Person=third Gender=neuter Number=singular1itself
Pg3--------------rPronoun Type=general Person=third Wh_Type=relative3which, whichever, whatever
Pg3--------------qPronoun Type=general Person=third Wh_Type=question4which, whichever, what, whatever
Pg3-sPronoun Type=general Person=third Number=singular1another
Pg3-pPronoun Type=general Person=third Number=plural2several, others
Pg3msPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=masculine Number=singular5someone, somebody, no-one, nobody, anybody
Pg3fsPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=feminine Number=singular5someone, somebody, no-one, nobody, anybody
Pg3nPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=neuter5some, none, most, any, all
Pg3nsPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=neuter Number=singular14tis/this, this, that, something, nothing
Pg3npPronoun Type=general Person=third Gender=neuter Number=plural5those, these, many, few, both
Pt3Pronoun Type=ex-there Person=third1there
DdDeterminer Type=demonstrative1the
DiDeterminer Type=indefinite2an/a, a
Ds--------rDeterminer Type=possessive Wh_Type=relative1whose
Ds--------qDeterminer Type=possessive Wh_Type=question1whose
Ds1---sDeterminer Type=possessive Person=first Owner_Number=singular1my
Ds1---pDeterminer Type=possessive Person=first Owner_Number=plural1our
Ds2Determiner Type=possessive Person=second1your
Ds3---smDeterminer Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=masculine2'is/his, his
Ds3---sfDeterminer Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=feminine3her, 'Er/her, 'er/her
Ds3---snDeterminer Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=singular Owner_Gender=neuter1its
Ds3---pDeterminer Type=possessive Person=third Owner_Number=plural1their
DgDeterminer Type=general4some, no, each, any
Dg--------rDeterminer Type=general Wh_Type=relative2which, whichever
Dg--------qDeterminer Type=general Wh_Type=question4which, whichever, what, whatever
Dg--sDeterminer Type=general Number=singular10tis/this, this, that, neither, much
Dg--pDeterminer Type=general Number=plural10those, these, such, other, most
R-p---qAdverb Degree=positive Wh_Type=question3'Ow, 'ow, how
RmpAdverb Type=modifier Degree=positive3882zoologically, zealously, zanily, youthfully, youngly
Rmp---rAdverb Type=modifier Degree=positive Wh_Type=relative3where, whereupon, when
Rmp---qAdverb Type=modifier Degree=positive Wh_Type=question3why, where, when
RmcAdverb Type=modifier Degree=comparative2worse, better
RmsAdverb Type=modifier Degree=superlative2worst, best
RspAdverb Type=specifier Degree=positive5very, too, so, much, as
RscAdverb Type=specifier Degree=comparative2more, less
RssAdverb Type=specifier Degree=superlative2most, least
SpAdposition Type=preposition89with, without, within, vis-à-vis, via
StAdposition Type=postposition5's/have, notwithstanding, '/have, away, ago
CcConjunction Type=coordinating1as
Cc-iConjunction Type=coordinating Coord_Type=initial2neither, either
Cc-nConjunction Type=coordinating Coord_Type=non-initial5than, or, nor, but, and
CsConjunction Type=subordinating52yet, whilst, while, whether, where
McNumeral Type=cardinal40zero, two, twenty, twenty-seven, twenty-five
MoNumeral Type=ordinal33twentieth, twelfth, trillionth, thousandth, thirtieth
IInterjection14oh-o-o-o-oh, oh, hullo, hi, 'em
YAbbreviation1Dr.
XResidual12+2=5
ZPunctuation10), (, ", ., ..
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Date: 2021-08-20
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