[Next] [Up] [Previous] [Contents]
Next: Application to German Up: Language specific applications Previous: Language specific applications

Application to Italian

In this section the MULTEXT set of lexicon specifications is applied to Italian (Calzolari and Monachini 1994). The language-specific values added for Italian are highligthed with the code `l-spec'.

Furthermore, a preliminary tagset for Italian is proposed. This is based on the tagset used by our tagger, but also takes into account the criteria expressed above for the construction of the tagset, and the results of a first cycle of experimentations on the MULTEXT tagger.

A table containing the the translation of the tag into the regular expression and its definition is presented, i.e.

         TAG       Reg.expr. Definition

         NMS       Ncms-     Common noun, masc.sing.
A table displaying the mapping between lexicon specifications and corpus tags is provided, along with an examplification.

5.1.1 Nouns (N)
--------------- Lexicon

============ =========== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         common      libro       c
             proper      Gianni      p
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Gender       masculine   uomo        m
             feminine    donna       f
l-spec       common      insegnante  c
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Number       singular    uomini      s
             plural      donne       p
l-spec       invariant   attivita'   n
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Case         (n.a.)      (n.a.)      -
============ =========== =========== ====  Corpus

======= ================== ====================================
Tag     Regular expression Definition
======= ================== ====================================
NMS     Ncms-              Common noun, masc. sing.
NMP     Ncmp-              Common noun, masc. plur.
NMN     Ncmn-              Common noun, masc. invar.
NFS     Ncfs-              Common noun, fem. sing.
NFP     Ncfp-              Common noun, fem. plur.
NFN     Ncfn-              Common noun, fem. invar.
NNS     Nccs-              Common noun, comm. sing.
NNP     Nccp-              Common noun, comm. plur.
NNN     Nccn-              Common noun, comm. invar.
NP      Np..-              Proper noun
======= ================== ====================================  Combinations

========= ======= =============================================
Lexicon   Corpus  Example
========= ======= =============================================
Ncms-     NMS     libro
Ncmp-     NMP     libri
Ncmn-     NMN     re, caffe' (il/i)
Ncfs-     NFS     casa
Ncfp-     NFP     case
Ncfn-     NFN     attivita'  (la/le)
Nccs-     NNS     insegnante (un/una)
Nccp-     NNP     insegnanti (gli/le)
Nccn-     NNN     sosia      (il/la, i/le)

Np..-     NP      Mario, Maria, Borboni
========= ======= ============================================= Some obsevations for the corpus tagset

The  idea  of the French  group  to tag  Proper  Nouns simply  with NP
(collapsing  the  information  on gender and  number)  seems the  best
5.1.2 Verb (V)
-------------- Lexicon

============ =========== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         main        amare       m
             auxiliary   avere       a
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Mood/VForm   indicative  amo         i
             subjunctive ami         s
             imperative  ama         m
             conditional amerei      c
             infinitive  amare       n
             participle  amato       p
             gerund      amando      g
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Tense        present     amo         p
             imperfect   amavo       i
             future      amero'      f
             past        amai        s
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Person       first       amo         1
             second      ami         2
             third       ama         3
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Number       singular    amo         s
             plural      amiamo      p
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Gender       masculine   amato       m
             feminine    amata       f
l-spec       common      amante      c
============ =========== =========== ====  Corpus

========= ======================= ======================================
Tag       Regular Expression      Definition
========= ======================= ======================================
VAS1IP    Vaip1s-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.sing., pres.indic.
VAS2IP    Vaip2s-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.sing., pres.indic.
VAS3IP    Vaip3s-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.sing., pres.indic.
VAP2IP    Vaip2p-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.plur., pres.indic.
VAP3IP    Vaip3p-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.plur., pres.indic.

VAP1ICP   Va[is]p1p-              Aux. Verb, 1stpers.plur.,pres.indic/cong
VAY^2IP   Vaip(1s|3p)-            Aux. Verb, 1st sing./3rd plur., pres.indic

VAS1II    Vaii1s-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.sing., impf.indic.
VAS2II    Vaii2s-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.sing., impf.indic.
VAS3II    Vaii3s-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.sing., impf.indic.
VAP1II    Vaii1p-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.plur., impf.indic.
VAP2II    Vaii2p-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.plur., impf.indic.
VAP3II    Vaii3p-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.plur., impf.indic.

VAS1IF    Vaif1s-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.sing., fut. indic.
VAS2IF    Vaif2s-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.sing., fut. indic.
VAS3IF    Vaif3s-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.sing., fut. indic.
VAP1IF    Vaif1p-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.plur., fut. indic.
VAP2IF    Vaif2p-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.plur., fut. indic.
VAP3IF    Vaif3p-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.plur., fut. indic.

VAS1IR    Vais1s-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.sing., past indic.
VAS2IR    Vais2s-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.sing., past indic.
VAS3IR    Vais3s-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.sing., past indic.
VAP1IR    Vais1p-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.plur., past indic.
VAP3IR    Vais3p-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.plur., past indic.

VAP2ICR   Va(is)|(si)2p-          Aux. Verb, 2nd p.pl., past indic./pres.cong

VASXCP    Vacp.s-                 Aux. Verb, 1/2/3 p. sing., pres.subj.
VAP2CMP   Va[sm]p2p-              Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.plur., pres.subj./imper.
VAP3CP    Vasp3p-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.plur., pres.subj.

VAS^3CI   Vasi^3s-                Aux. Verb, 1/2 pers.sing., impf.subj.

VAS3CI    Vasi3s-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.sing., impf.subj.
VAP1CI    Vasi1p-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.plur., impf.subj.
VAP3CI    Vasi3p-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.plur., impf.subj.

VAS2MP    Vamp2s-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.sing., pres.impr.
VAS2MPE   Vamp2s-y                Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.sing., pres.impr. + clit.
VAP2MPE   Vamp2p-y                Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.plur., pres.impr. + clit.

VAS1DP    Vacp1s-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.sing., pres.cond.
VAS2DP    Vacp2s-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.sing., pres.cond.
VAS3DP    Vacp3s-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.sing., pres.cond.
VAP1DP    Vacp1p-                 Aux. Verb, 1st pers.plur., pres.cond.
VAP2DP    Vacp2p-                 Aux. Verb, 2nd pers.plur., pres.cond.
VAP3DP    Vacp3p-                 Aux. Verb, 3rd pers.plur., pres.cond.

VAF       Vanp---                 Aux. Verb, infinitive
VAFE      Vanp--cy                Aux. Verb, infinitive + clitic

VANSPP    Vapp-sc                 Aux. Verb, comm.sing., pres.part.
VANPPP    Vapp-pc                 Aux. Verb, comm.plur., pres.part.

VAMSPR    Vaps-sm                 Aux. Verb, masc.sing., past part.
VAMPPR    Vaps-pm                 Aux. Verb, masc.plur., past part.
VAFSPR    Vaps-sf                 Aux. Verb, femm.sing., past part.
VAFPPR    Vaps-pf                 Aux. Verb, femm.plur., past part.

VAMSPRE   Vaps-smy                Aux. Verb, masc.sing., past part. + clitic
VAMPPRE   Vaps-pmy                Aux. Verb, masc.plur., past part. + clitic
VAFSPRE   Vaps-sfy                Aux. Verb, femm.sing., past part. + clitic
VAFPPRE   Vaps-pfy                Aux. Verb, femm.plur., past part. + clitic

VAG       Vagp---                 Aux. Verb, gerund
VAGE      Vagp---y                Aux. Verb, gerund + clitic

VS1IP     Vmip1s-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.sing., pres.indic
VS3IP     Vmip3s-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.sing., pres.indic
VP3IP     Vmip3p-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.plur., pres.indic

VP1ICP    Vm[is]p1p               Main Verb,1stpers.plur.,pres.indic/cong
VP2IMPP   Vm([im]p2p-)|(ps-pf)    M.V., 2nd pl., pres.indic/imper|pstprt f.pl.
VP2IMP    Vm([im]p2p)-            Main Verb, 2nd pl., pres.indic/imper
VSXICP    Vm(sp.s)|(ip2s)-        M.V., 1/2/3 sg.,pres.subj.|2ndsg. pres.indic.
VS^1IMP   Vm[im]^1s-              Main Verb, not 1stsg.,pres.indic./imper.
VS2IMP    Vm[im]p2s-              Main Verb, 2nd sg., pres.indic/imper
VP2IMCPP  Vm([ims]p2p-)|(ps-pf)   M.V., 2pl., pr.ind/imp/sub|pst.prt f.pl.

VS1II     Vmii1s-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.sing., impf.indic.
VS2II     Vmii2s-                 Main Verb, 2nd pers.sing., impf.indic.
VS3II     Vmii3s-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.sing., impf.indic.
VP1II     Vmii1p-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.plur., impf.indic.
VP2II     Vmii2p-                 Main Verb, 2nd pers.plur., impf.indic.
VP3II     Vmii3p-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.plur., impf.indic.

VS1IF     Vmif1s-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.sing., fut. indic.
VS2IF     Vmif2s-                 Main Verb, 2nd pers.sing., fut. indic.
VS3IF     Vmif3s-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.sing., fut. indic.
VP1IF     Vmif1p-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.plur., fut. indic.
VP2IF     Vmif2p-                 Main Verb, 2nd pers.plur., fut. indic.
VP3IF     Vmif3p-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.plur., fut. indic.

VS1IR     Vmis1s-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.sing., past indic.
VS2IR     Vmis2s-                 Main Verb, 2nd pers.sing., past indic.
VS3IR     Vmis3s-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.sing., past indic.
VP1IR     Vmis1p-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.plur., past indic.
VP3IR     Vmis3p-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.plur., past indic.

VP2ICR    Vm(is)|(si)2p-          Main Verb, 2nd p.pl., past indic./pres.subj.

VP2CP     Vmsp2p-                 Main Verb, 2nd pers.plur., pres.subj. amiate
VP3CP     Vmsp3p-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.plur., pres.subj. amino

VSXCP     Vmcp.s-                 Main Verb, 1/2/3 p. sing., pres.subj.

VS^3CI    Vmsi^3s-                Main Verb, 1/2 pers.sing., impf.subj.

VS3CI     Vmsi3s-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.sing., impf.subj.
VP1CI     Vmsi1p-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.plur., impf.subj.
VP3CI     Vmsi3p-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.plur., impf.subj.

VS2MPE    Vmmp2s-y                Main Verb, 2nd pers.sing., pres.impr. + clit.
VP2MPE    Vmmp2p-y                Main Verb, 2nd pers.plur., pres.impr. + clit.

VS1DP     Vmcp1s-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.sing., pres.cond.
VS2DP     Vmcp2s-                 Main Verb, 2nd pers.sing., pres.cond.
VS3DP     Vmcp3s-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.sing., pres.cond.
VP1DP     Vmcp1p-                 Main Verb, 1st pers.plur., pres.cond.
VP2DP     Vmcp2p-                 Main Verb, 2nd pers.plur., pres.cond.
VP3DP     Vmcp3p-                 Main Verb, 3rd pers.plur., pres.cond.

VF        Vmnp---                 Main Verb, infinitive
VFE       Vmnp---y                Main Verb, infinitive + clitic

VNSPP     Vmpp-sc                 Main Verb, comm.sing., pres.part.
VNPPP     Vmpp-pc                 Main Verb, comm.plur., pres.part.

VMSPR     Vmps-sm                 Main Verb, masc.sing., past part.
VMPPR     Vmps-pm                 Main Verb, masc.plur., past part.
VFSPR     Vmps-sf                 Main Verb, femm.sing., past part.
VFPPR     Vmps-pf                 Main Verb, femm.plur., past part.

VMSPRE    Vmps-smy                Main Verb, masc.sing., past part. +c
VMPPRE    Vmps-pmy                Main Verb, masc.plur., past part. +c
VFSPRE    Vmps-sfy                Main Verb, femm.sing., past part. +c
VFPPRE    Vmps-pfy                Main Verb, femm.plur., past part. +c

VG        Vmgp---                 Main Verb, gerund
VGE       Vmgp---y                Main Verb, gerund + clitic

-------------------- more collapsed tagset -----------------------

VA1P   Va[iscm][pifs]1p--      Aux. verb, 1st person plur.
VA1S   Va[iscm][pifs]1s--      Aux. verb, 1st person sing.
VA2P   Va[iscm][pifs]2p--      Aux. verb, 2nd person plur.
VA2S   Va[iscm][pifs]2s--      Aux. verb, 2nd person sing.
VA3P   Va[iscm][pifs]3p--      Aux. verb, 3rd person plur.
VA3S   Va[iscm][pifs]3s--      Aux. verb, 3rd person sing.
VAFPPS Vaps-pf-                Aux. verb, fem. plur., past part.
VAFSPS Vaps-sf-                Aux. verb, fem. sing., past part.
VAMPPS Vaps-pm-                Aux. verb, masc. plur., past part.
VAMSPS Vaps-sm-                Aux. verb, masc. sing., past part.
VAN    Vanp----                Aux. verb, infinitive
VAFE   Vanp----                Aux. Verb, infinitive + enclitic
VAG    Vagp----                Aux. Verb, gerund
VAGE   Vagp----                Aux. Verb, gerund + enclitic
VAPP   Vapp-..-                Aux. verb, pres. participle

V1P    Vm[iscm][pifs]1p--      Main Verb, 1st person plur.
V1S    Vm[iscm][pifs]1s--      Main Verb, 1st person sing.
V2P    Vm[iscm][pifs]2p--      Main Verb, 2nd person plur.
V2S    Vm[iscm][pifs]2s--      Main Verb, 2nd person sing.
V3P    Vm[iscm][pifs]3p--      Main Verb, 3rd person plur.
V3S    Vm[iscm][pifs]3s--      Main Verb, 3rd person sing.
VFPPS  Vmps-pf-                Main Verb, fem. plur., past part.
VFSPS  Vmps-sf-                Main Verb, fem. sing., past part.
VMPPS  Vmps-pm-                Main Verb, masc. plur., past part.
VMSPS  Vmps-sm-                Main Verb, masc. plur., past part.
VF     Vmnp----                Main Verb, infinitive
VFE    Vmnp----y               Main Verb, infinitive + enclitic
VG     Vmgp----                Main Verb, gerund
VGE    Vmgp----y               Main Verb, gerund + enclitic
VPP    Vmpp-..-                Main Verb, pres. participle
--------------------- more collapsed end ----------------------
====== =================== ===================================  Combinations

============ ======== =============================================
Lexicon      Corpus   Example
============ ======== =============================================
Vaip1s- +++  VAS1IP   ho
Vaip2s-      VAS2IP   hai, sei
Vaip3s-      VAS3IP   ha, e'
Vaip2p-      VAP2IP   avete, siete
Vaip3p- +++  VAP3IP   hanno

Vaip1p-      VAP1ICP  abbiamo, siamo
Vaip1s- +++  VAY^2IP  sono
Vaip3p- +++  VAY^2IP  sono

Vaii1s-      VAS1II   avevo, ero
Vaii2s-      VAS2II   avevi, eri
Vaii3s-      VAS3II   aveva, era
Vaii1p-      VAP1II   avevamo, eravamo
Vaii2p-      VAP2II   avevate, eravate
Vaii3p-      VAP3II   avevano, erano

Vaif1s-      VAS1IF   avro', saro'
Vaif2s-      VAS2IF   avrai, sarai
Vaif3s-      VAS3IF   avra', sara'
Vaif1p-      VAP1IF   avremo, saremo
Vaif2p-      VAP2IF   avrete, sarete
Vaif3p-      VAP3IF   avranno, saranno

Vais1s-      VAS1IR   ebbi, fui
Vais2s-      VAS2IR   avesti, fosti
Vais3s-      VAS3IR   ebbe, fu
Vais1p-      VAP1IR   avemmo, fummo
Vais3p-      VAP3IR   ebbero, furono

Vais2s-      VAP2ICR  aveste, foste

Vasp1s-      VASXCP   abbia, sia
Vasp2s-      VASXCP   abbia, sia
Vasp3s-      VASXCP   abbia, sia
Vasp1p-      VAP1ICP  abbiamo, siamo
Vasp2p-      VAP2CMP  abbiate, siate
Vasp3p-      VAP3CP   abbiano, siano

Vasi1s-      VAS^3CI  avessi, fossi
Vasi2s-      VAS^3CI  avessi, fossi
Vasi3s-      VAS3CI   avesse, fosse
Vasi1p-      VAP1CI   avessimo, fossimo
Vasi2s-      VAP2ICR  aveste, foste
Vasi3p-      VAP3CI   avessero, fossero

Vamp2s-      VAS2MP   abbi, sii
Vamp2s-y     VAS2MPE  abbilo, siilo
Vamp2p-      VAP2CMP  abbiate, siate
Vamp2p-y     VAP2MPE  abbiatelo, siatelo

Vacp1s-      VAS1DP   avrei, sarei
Vacp2s-      VAS2DP   avresti, saresti
Vacp3s-      VAS3DP   avrebbe, sarebbe
Vacp1p-      VAP1DP   avremmo, saremmo
Vacp2p-      VAP2DP   avreste, sareste
Vacp3p-      VAP3DP   avrebbero, sarebbero

Vanp---      VAF      avere, essere
Vanp--cy     VAFE     averlo, esserlo

Vapp-sc      VANSPP   avente, essente
Vapp-pc      VANPPP   aventi, essenti

Vaps-sm      VAMSPR   avuto, stato
Vaps-pm      VAMPPR   avuti, stati
Vaps-sf      VAFSPR   avuta, stata
Vaps-pf      VAFPPR   avute, state

Vaps-smy     VAMSPRE  avutolo
Vaps-pmy     VAMPPRE  avutili
Vaps-sfy     VAFSPRE  avutala
Vaps-pfy     VAFPPRE  avuteli

Vagp---      VAG      avendo, essendo
Vagp---y     VAGE     avendolo, essendolo

Vmip1s-      VS1IP    amo, leggo, servo
Vmip2s- +++  VSXICP   ami
Vmip2s- +++  VS2IMP   leggi, servi
Vmip3s- ---  VS^1IMP  ama
Vmip3s- ---  VS3IP    legge, serve
Vmip1p-      VP1ICP   amiamo, leggiamo, serviamo
Vmip2p- ***  VP2IMPP  amate, servite
Vmip2p- ***  VP2IMP   leggete
Vmip2p- ***  VP2IMCPP premiate
Vmip3p-      VP3IP    amano, leggono, servono

Vmii1s-      VS1II    amavo,
Vmii2s-      VS2II    amavi,
Vmii3s-      VS3II    amava
Vmii1p-      VP1II    amavano
Vmii2p-      VP2II    amavate
Vmii3p-      VP3II    amavano

Vmif1s-      VS1IF    amero'
Vmif2s-      VS2IF    amerai
Vmif3s-      VS3IF    amera'
Vmif1p-      VP1IF    ameremo
Vmif2p-      VP2IF    amerete
Vmif3p-      VP3IF    ameranno

Vmis1s-      VS1IR    amai
Vmis2s-      VS2IR    amasti
Vmis3s-      VS3IR    amo'
Vmis1p-      VP1IR    amammo
Vmis2p-      VP2ICR   amaste, leggeste, serviste
Vmis3p-      VP3IR    amarono

Vmsp1s- +++  VSXCP    legga
Vmsp1s- +++  VSXICP   ami
Vmsp2s- ---  VSXCP    legga
Vmsp2s- ---  VSXICP   ami
Vmsp3s- ***  VSXCP    legga
Vmsp3s- ***  VSXICP   ami
Vmsp1p-      VP1ICP   amiamo, leggiamo, serviamo
Vmsp2p- """  VP2CP    amiate, leggiate, serviate
Vmsp2p- """  VP2ICMPP premiate
Vmsp3p-      VP3CP    amino, leggano, servano

Vmsi1s-      VS^3CI   amassi, leggessi, servissi
Vmsi2s-      VS^3CI   amassi, leggessi, servissi
Vmsi3s-      VS3CI    amasse, leggesse, servisse
Vmsi1p-      VP1CI    amassimo
Vmsi2p-      VP2ICR   amaste, leggeste, serviste
Vmsi3p-      VP3CI    amassero

Vmmp2s- +++  VS^1IMP  ama
Vmmp2s- +++  VS2IMP   leggi, servi
Vmmp2p- ---  VP2IMPP  amate
Vmmp2p- ---  VP2IMP   leggete, servite
Vmmp2p- ---  VP2IMCPP premiate
Vmmp2s-y     VS2MPe   amalo, leggilo, servilo
Vmmp2p-y     VP2MPe   amatelo, leggetelo, servitelo

Vmcp1s-      VS1DP    amerei
Vmcp2s-      VS2DP    ameresti
Vmcp3s-      VS3DP    amarebbe
Vmcp1p-      VP1DP    ameremmo
Vmcp2p-      VP2DP    amereste
Vmcp3p-      VP3DP    amerebero

Vmnp---      VF       amare
Vmnp---y     VFE      amarlo

Vmpp-sc      VNSPP    amante
Vmpp-pc      VNPPP    amanti

Vmps-sm      VMSPR    amato, letto, servito
Vmps-pm      VMPPR    amati, letti, serviti
Vmps-sf      VFSPR    amata, letta, servita
Vmps-pf +++  VP2IMCPP premiate
Vmps-pf +++  VP2IMPP  amate, servite
Vmps-pf +++  VFPPR    lette

Vmps-smy     VMSPRE   amatolo
Vmps-pmy     VMPPRE   amatili
Vmps-sfy     VFSPRE   amatala
Vmps-pfy     VFPPRE   amatele

Vmgp---      VG       amando
Vmgp---y     VGE      amandolo

----------------------- more collapsed tagset ------------------

Vaip1s-   VA1S         ho
Vaip2s-   VA2S         hai
Vaip3s-   VA3S         ha
Vaip1p-   VA1P         abbiamo
Vaip2p-   VA2P         avete
Vaip3p-   VA3P         hanno
Vaii1s-   VA1S         avevo
Vaii2s-   VA2S         avevi
Vaii3s-   VA3S         aveva
Vaii1p-   VA1P         avevamo
Vaii2p-   VA2P         avevate
Vaii3p-   VA3P         avevano
Vaif1s-   VA1S         avro'
Vaif2s-   VA2S         avrai
Vaif3s-   VA3S         avra'
Vaif1p-   VA1P         avremo
Vaif2p-   VA2P         avrete
Vaif3p-   VA3P         avranno
Vais1s-   VA1S         ebbi
Vais2s-   VA2S         avesti
Vais3s-   VA3S         ebbe
Vais1p-   VA1P         avemmo
Vais2p-   VA2P         aveste
Vais3p-   VA3P         ebbero
Vasp1s-   VA1S         abbia
Vasp2s-   VA2S         abbia
Vasp3s-   VA3S         abbia
Vasp1p-   VA1P         abbiamo
Vasp2p-   VA2P         abbiate
Vasp3p-   VA3P         abbiano
Vasi1s-   VA1S         avessi
Vasi2s-   VA2S         avessi
Vasi3s-   VA3S         avesse
Vasi1p-   VA1P         avessimo
Vasi2p-   VA2P         aveste
Vasi3p-   VA3P         avessero
Vamp2s-   VA2S         abbi
Vamp2p-   VA2P         abbiate
Vacp1s-   VA1S         avrei
Vacp2s-   VA2S         avresti
Vacp3s-   VA3S         avrebbe
Vacp1p-   VA1P         avremmo
Vacp2p-   VA2P         avreste
Vacp3p-   VA3P         avrebbero
Vanp---   VAF          avere
Vanp---y  VAFE         averlo
Va-cspp   VANSPP       avente
Va-cppp   VANPPP       aventi
Va-msps   VAMSPR       avuto
Va-mpps   VAMPPR       avuti
Va-fsps   VAFSPR       avuta
Va-fpps   VAFPPR       avute
Va-gp--   VAG          avendo
Va-gp--y  VAGE         avendolo

Vmip1s-   V1S         amo
Vmip2s-   V2S         ami
Vmip3s-   V3S         ama
Vmip1p-   V1P         amiamo
Vmip2p-   V2P         amate
Vmip3p-   V3P         amano
Vmii1s-   V1S         amavo
Vmii2s-   V2S         amavi
Vmii3s-   V3S         amava
Vmii1p-   V1P         amavamo
Vmii2p-   V2P         amavate
Vmii3p-   V3P         amavano
Vmif1s-   V1S         amero'
Vmif2s-   V2S         amerai
Vmif3s-   V3S         amera'
Vmif1p-   V1P         ameremo
Vmif2p-   V2P         amerete
Vmif3p-   V3P         ameranno
Vmis1s-   V1S         amai
Vmis2s-   V2S         amasti
Vmis3s-   V3S         amo'
Vmis1p-   V1P         amammo
Vmis2p-   V2P         amaste
Vmis3p-   V3P         amarono
Vmsp1s-   V1S         ami
Vmsp2s-   V2S         ami
Vmsp3s-   V3S         ami
Vmsp1p-   V1P         amiamo
Vmsp2p-   V2P         amiate
Vmsp3p-   V3P         amino
Vmsi1s-   V1S         amassi
Vmsi2s-   V2S         amassi
Vmsi3s-   V3S         amasse
Vmsi1p-   V1P         amassimo
Vmsi2p-   V2P         amaste
Vmsi3p-   V3P         amassero
Vmmp2s-   V2S         ama
Vmmp2p-   V2P         amate
Vmcp1s-   V1S         amerei
Vmcp2s-   V2S         ameresti
Vmcp3s-   V3S         amerebbe
Vmcp1p-   V1P         ameremmo
Vmcp2p-   V2P         amereste
Vmcp3p-   V3P         amerebbero
Vmnp---   VF          amare
Vmnp---y  VFE         amarlo
Vm-cspp   VNSPP       amante
Vm-cppp   VNPPP       amanti
Vm-msps   VMSPR       amato
Vm-mpps   VMPPR       amati
Vm-fsps   VFSPR       amata
Vm-fpps   VFPPR       amate
Vm-gp--   VG          amando
Vm-gp--y  VGE         amandolo
========= =======   ======================================== Some observations for corpus tagset

An observation concerns the special  marking for the auxiliaries:  the
taggers are in general not able to disambiguate the cases in which the
auxiliaries are used as full verbs ("io ho un cane"  , "i bambini sono
nel prato") from the cases when they are auxiliaries.  The distinction
of the  auxiliaries is  used  only in  order  to isolate  'avere'  and
'essere' from the other verbs.

For verbs,  two  different sets of tags are proposed,  the  first more
fine-grained  for  more  accurate  distinctions  and  the  latter more
coarse-grained,  which  follows  the  approach proposed by  the French

The collapsing proposed by the French group of Moods  and  Tenses,  if
considered wrt to the performances of our tagger, appears restrictive:
for many unambiguous tenses and moods,  the Italian  tagger is able to
formulate  the  correct  analysis   (e.g.   conditional,   subjunctive
imperfect,  indicative past etc.)  and these distinctions are,  in our
opinion,  worth being maintained.  It  has  to  be  noticed  that  the
ambiguities between verb forms depend also on different lexical verbs.

In Italian,  the major ambiguities concerns  the 2nd  sing and plur of
the  present  indicative  and  imperative,  ama-amate;  leggi-leggete.
However, this is again not a general rule.

Another  very  common  ambiguity is  between  the  2nd  pers.  of  the
indicative and the 1st,  2nd,  3rd  person of the present subjunctive.
Therefore  not  always it is possible  to  decide unambiguosly on  the

Some more frequent typical homographies in Italian are listed below:

                        VP1ICP   amiamo
                        VP2IMP   leggete
                        VP2IMPP  amate
                        VP2IMCPP premiate
                        VP2ICR   amaste
                        VS^3CI   amassi
                        VSXCP    legga
                        VAY^2IP  sono
                        VSXICP   ami
                        VS2IMP   leggi
                        VS^1IMP  ama
                        VS^1IMP  ama

In the design of corpus tagsets  for verbs careful attention should be
given to  the enclitic phenomenon:  at  present our tagger is  able to
recognize the presence  of  the  clitics which  is  signalled  by  the
addition of the mark "+E" (plus clitic) to the regular verb tag.
5.1.3 Adjectives (A)
-------------------- Lexicon

============ =========== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         -           -           -
------------------------------------ ----
Degree       positive    buono       p
             comparative migliore    c
             superlative buonissimo  s
------------------------------------ ----
Gender       masculine   buono       m
             feminine    buona       f
l-spec       common      dolce       c
------------ --- - ----- ----------- ----
Number       singular    buono       s
             plural      buoni       p
l-spec       invariant   pari        n
------------ --- - ----- ----------- ----
Case         (n.a.)      (n.a.)      -
============ =========== =========== ====  Corpus

======= ================== ====================================
Tag     Regular expression Definition
======= ================== ====================================
AFP     A-.fp-               Adjective fem. plur.
AFS     A-.fs-               Adjective fem. sing.
AFN     A-.fn-               Adjective fem. invar.
AMP     A-.mp-               Adjective masc. plur.
AMS     A-.ms-               Adjective masc. sing.
AMN     A-.mn-               Adjective masc. invar.
AMP     A-.mp-               Adjective comm. plur.
AMS     A-.ms-               Adjective comm. sing.
AMN     A-.mn-               Adjective comm. invar.
======= ================== ====================================  Combinations

========= =======   =============================================
Lexicon   Corpus    Example
========= =======   =============================================
A-pms-    AMS       vero
A-pmp-    AMP       veri
A-pmn-    AMN       oggetto (complemento/i oggetto: grammatical language)
A-pfs-    AFS       vera
A-pfp-    AFP       vere
A-pfn-    AFN       valore (clausola valore: juridical language)
A-pcs-    ANS       dolce (biscotto, torta)
A-pcp-    ANP       dolci (biscotti, dolci)
A-pcn-    ANN       pari  (risultato/i, somma/e)
A-sms-    AMS       verissimo
A-smp-    AMP       verissimi
A-sfs-    AFS       verissima
A-sfp-    AFP       verissime
========= =======   =============================================  Observations

The comparative Degree applies only to a close set of adjectives (e.g.
maggiore, migliore, etc). All other adjectives form their comparatives
with  "piu'"  + adjective (e.g.,  piu'  forte). Superlative is also an
analytical form (il piu' forte), but can be also synthetically formed:
grandissimo, massimo.
5.1.4. Pronouns
--------------- Lexicon

============ =========== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         personal    io          p
             demonstrat. quello      d
             indefinite  chiunque    i
             possessive  mio         s
             interrog.   chi         t
             relative    che         r
             exclamative quanto      e
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Person       first       io          1
             second      tu          2
             third       egli        3
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Gender       masculine   questo      m
             feminine    questa      f
l-spec       common      io          c
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Number       singular    questo      s
             plural      questi      p
l-spec       invariant   che         n
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Case         (n.a.)      (n.a.)      -
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Possessor    -           -           -
============ =========== =========== ====  Corpus

======= ========= ====================================
Tag     Reg.Expr. Definition
======= ========= ====================================
PDMS    Pd-ms--       Demonstrative pronoun masc.sing.
PDMP    Pd-mp--       Demonstrative pronoun masc.plur.
PDFS    Pd-fs--       Demonstrative pronoun femm.sing.
PDFP    Pd-fp--       Demonstrative pronoun femm.plur.
PDNS    Pd-cs--       Demonstrative pronoun comm.sing.
PDNP    Pd-cp--       Demonstrative pronoun comm.plur.

PIMS    Pi-ms--       Indefinite    pronoun masc.sing.
PIMP    Pi-mp--       Indefinite    pronoun masc.plur.
PIFS    Pi-fs--       Indefinite    pronoun femm.sing.
PIFP    Pi-fp--       Indefinite    pronoun femm.plur.
PINS    Pi-cs--       Indefinite    pronoun comm.sing.
PINP    Pi-cp--       Indefinite    pronoun comm.plur.

PPMS    Ps.ms--       Possessive pronoun, masc.sing.
PPMP    Ps.mp--       Possessive pronoun, masc.plur.
PPFS    Ps.fs--       Possessive pronoun, femm.sing.
PPFP    Ps.fp--       Possessive pronoun, femm.plur.
PPNP    Ps.cp--       Possessive pronoun, comm.plur.

PWNS    P[tre]-cs--   Interr./Rel./Escl. pronoun, comm.sing.
PWNP    P[tre]-cp--   Interr./Rel./Escl. pronoun, comm.plur.
PWNN    P[tre]-cn--   Interr./Rel./Escl. pronoun, comm.plur.
PWMS    P[tre]-ms--   Interr./Rel./Escl. pronoun, masc.sing.
PWMP    P[tre]-mp--   Interr./Rel./Escl. pronoun, masc.plur.
PWFS    P[tre]-fs--   Interr./Rel./Escl. pronoun, femm.sing.
PWFP    P[tre]-fp--   Interr./Rel./Escl. pronoun, femm.plur.

PQNS1   Pp1cs--       Personal   pronoun, 1st pers., comm.sing.
PQNS2   Pp2cs--       Personal   pronoun, 2nd pers., comm.sing.
PQMS3   Pp3ms--       Personal   pronoun, 3rd pers., masc.sing.
PQFS3   Pp3fs--       Personal   pronoun, 3rd pers., femm.sing.
PQNN3   Pp3cn--       Personal   pronoun, 3rd pers., comm.inv.
PQNP1   Pp1cp--       Personal   pronoun, 1st pers., comm.plur.
PQNP2   Pp2cp--       Personal   pronoun, 2nd pers., comm.plur.
PQNP3   Pp3cp--       Personal   pronoun, 3rd pers., comm.plur.
PQMP3   Pp3mp--       Personal   pronoun, 3rd pers., masc.plur.
PQFP3   Pp3fp--       Personal   pronoun, 3rd pers., femm.plur.

--------- more collapsed ----------------
PFP     P..fp---      Pronoun, fem. plur.
PFS     P..fs---      Pronoun, fem. plur.
PMP     P..mp---      Pronoun, masc. plur.
PMS     P..ms---      Pronoun, masc. sing.
PNS     P..cs---      Pronoun, comm. sing.
PNP     P..cp---      Pronoun, comm. plur.
PNN     P..cn---      Pronoun, comm. inv.
---------- more collapsed end -----------

====== ========== ==========================================  Combinations

========= =======   =============================================
Lexicon   Corpus    Example
========= =======   =============================================
Pd-ms--   PDMS      quello, costui
Pd-mp--   PDMP      quelli
Pd-fs--   PDFS      quella
Pd-fp--   PDFP      quelle
Pd-cs--   PDNS      cio'
Pd-cp--   PDNP      coloro

Pi-ms--   PIMS      ognuno
Pi-mp--   PIMP      alcuni
Pi-fs--   PIFS      ognuna
Pi-fp--   PIFP      alcune
Pi-cs--   PINS      chiunque, tale
Pi-cp--   PINP      tali

Ps1ms--   PPMS      mio, nostro
Ps1mp--   PPMP      miei
Ps1fs--   PPFS      mia
Ps1fp--   PPFP      mie
Ps2ms--   PPMS      tuo, vostro
Ps2mp--   PPMP      tuoi
Ps2fs--   PPFS      tua
Ps2fp--   PPFP      tue
Ps3ms--   PPMS      suo
Ps3mp--   PPMP      suoi
Ps3fs--   PPFS      sua
Ps3fp--   PPFP      sue
Ps3cp--   PPNP      loro

Pt-cs--   PWNS      chi? quale?
Pt-cp--   PWNP      quali?
Pt-cn--   PWNN      che?
Pt-ms--   PWMS      quanto?
Pt-mp--   PWMP      quanti?
Pt-fs--   PWFS      quanta?
Pt-fp--   PWFP      quante?

Pr-cn--   PWNN      cui
Pr-ms--   PWMS      quanto
Pr-mp--   PWMP      quanti
Pr-fs--   PWFS      quanta
Pr-fp--   PWFP      quante
Pr-cs--   PWNS      chi, quale
Pr-cp--   PWNP      quali

Pe-ms--   PWMS      quanto!
Pe-mp--   PWMP      quanti!
Pe-fs--   PWFS      quanta!
Pe-fp--   PWFP      quante!
Pe-cs--   PWNS      quale!
Pe-cp--   PWNP      quali!
Pe-cn--   PWNN      che!

Pp1cs--   PQNS1     io, me, mi
Pp2cs--   PQNS2     tu, te, ti,
Pp3ms--   PQMS3     egli, lui, esso, gli, lo
Pp3fs--   PQFS3     ella, lei, essa, le, la
Pp3cn--   PQNN3     si
Pp1cp--   PQNP1     noi, ci
Pp2cp--   PQNP2     voi, vi
Pp3cp--   PQNP3     loro,
Pp3mp--   PQMP3     essi, li
Pp3fp--   PQFP3     esse, le

--------------------- more collapsed -----------------------------
P..fp---  PFP        mie, queste, quante etc.
P..fs---  PFS        mia, questa, quanta etc.
P..mp---  PMP        miei, questi, quanti etc.
P..ms---  PMS        mio, questo, quanto etc.
P..cs---  PNS        quale
P..cp---  PNP        quali
P..cn---  PNN        che, cui, altrui
-------------------- more collapsed end --------------------
==============================  Observations

For pronouns, the strategy of proposing two different tagsets, the one
more collapsed and the other more fine-grained is followed.

As far as the pronominal paradigm is concerned, Case is not encoded at
present in our DMI (Calzolari et al. 1983).
Personal  pronouns  are  not lemmatized: 'gli'  is not  considered the
dative  form  of the base pronoun  'egli' (he),  but   constitutes   a
separate entry.

The Italian pronominal paradigm is the following:

'forme toniche' (strong forms): subj (io, egli), compl (me, lui)

              ama me / da' a me -- dir-obj/prep-obj --
              (he loves me / he gives to me)

              ama lui / da' a lui -- dir-obj/prep-obj --
              (she loves him / she gives to him)

'forme atone' (weak forms):        -           compl (mi, gli/lo)

              mi da' / mi ama    -- ind-obj/dir-obj --
              (he gives me / he loves me)
              gli da'            -- ind-obj --
              (he gives him)
              lo ama             -- dir-obj --
              (she loves him)

This paradigm can be mapped on the Case system proposed by the French
group, in the following way:

io, egli = subj                     = nom
mi/me    = dir-obj/ind-obj/prep-obj = obj -] acc, dat, prep+obl
lui      = dir-obj/prep-obj         = obj -] acc, prep+obl
gli      = ind-obj                  = dat
lo       = dir-obj                  = acc

5.1.5 Determiners (Pronominal Adjectives) (D)
--------------------------------------------- Lexicon

============ =========== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         demonstrat. questo      d
             indefinite  ogni        i
             possessive  mio         s
             interrogat. che         t
             exclamative quanto      e   this value has been added
             relative    quanto      r   this value has been added
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Person       first       mio         1
             second      tuo         2
             third       suo         3
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Gender       masculine   questo      m
             feminine    questa      f
l-spec       common      ogni        c
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Number       singular    quello      s
             plural      quelli      p
l-spec       invariant   altrui      n
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Case         (n.a.)      (n.a.)      -
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Possessor    -           -           -
============ =========== =========== ====  Corpus

======= ============ ============================================
Tag     Regular exp. Definition
======= ============ ============================================
DDNS    Dd-ns--      Demonstrative pron.adj. comm.inv.
DDNP    Dd-np--      Demonstrative pron.adj. comm.plur.
DDMS    Dd-ms--      Demonstrative pron.adj. masc.sing.
DDMP    Dd-mp--      Demonstrative pron.adj. masc.plur.
DDFS    Dd-fs--      Demonstrative pron.adj. femm.sing.
DDFP    Dd-fp--      Demonstrative pron.adj. femm.plur.

DIMS    Di-ms--      Indefinite    pron.adj. masc.sing.
DIMP    Di-mp--      Indefinite    pron.adj. masc.plur.
DIFS    Di-fs--      Indefinite    pron.adj. femm.sing.
DIFP    Di-fp--      Indefinite    pron.adj. femm.plur.
DINS    Di-cs--      Indefinite    pron.adj. comm.sing.
DINP    Di-cp--      Indefinite    pron.adj. comm.plur.

DPMS    Ds.ms--      Possessive pron.adj.,  masc.sing.
DPMP    Ds.mp--      Possessive pron.adj.,  masc.plur.
DPFS    Ds.fs--      Possessive pron.adj.,  femm.sing.
DPFP    Ds.fp--      Possessive pron.adj.,  femm.plur.
DPNN    Ds-cn--      Possessive pron.adj.,  comm.inv.

DWNN    D[tre]-cn--  Interr/Relat./escl. pron.adj., comm.inv.
DWMS    D[tre]-ms--  Interr/Relat./escl. pron.adj., masc.sing.
DWMP    D[tre]-mp--  Interr/Relat./escl. pron.adj., masc.plur.
DWFS    D[tre]-fs--  Interr/Relat./escl. pron.adj., femm.sing.
DWFP    D[tre]-fp--  Interr/Relat./escl. pron.adj., femm.plur.
DWNS    D[tre]-cs--  Interr/Relat./escl. pron.adj., comm.sing.
DWNP    D[tre]-cp--  Interr/Relat./escl. pron.adj., comm.plur.

--------- more collapsed ----------------
DFP     D..fp---     Determiner, fem. plur.
DFS     D..fs---     Determiner, fem. plur.
DMP     D..mp---     Determiner, masc. plur.
DMS     D..ms---     Determiner, masc. sing.
DNS     D..cs---     Determiner, comm. sing.
DNP     D..cp---     Determiner, comm. plur.
DNN     D..cn---     Determiner, comm. inv.
--------- more collapsed end --------------
======= ============ ================================================  Combinations

========= ========== =================================
Lexicon   Corpus     Example
========= ========== =================================
Dd-cs--   DDNS       tale
Dd-cp--   DDNP       tali
Dd-ms--   DDMS       quello
Dd-mp--   DDMP       quelli
Dd-fs--   DDFS       quella
Dd-fp--   DDFP       quelle

Di-ms--   DIMS       nessun
Di-mp--   DIMP       alcuni
Di-fs--   DIFS       nessuna
Di-fp--   DIFP       alcune
Di-cs--   DINS       ogni
Di-cp--   DINP       quali

Ds1ms--   DPMS       mio, nostro
Ds1mp--   DPMP       miei
Ds1fs--   DPFS       mia
Ds1fp--   DPFP       mie
Ds2ms--   DPMS       tuo, vostro
Ds2mp--   DPMP       tuoi
Ds2fs--   DPFS       tua
Ds2fp--   DPFP       tue
Ds3ms--   DPMS       suo
Ds3mp--   DPMP       suoi
Ds3fs--   DPFS       sua
Ds3fp--   DPFP       sue
Ds-cn--   DPNN       altrui

Dr-cn--   DWNN       cui
Dr-ms--   DWMS       quanto
Dr-mp--   DWMP       quanti
Dr-fs--   DWFS       quante
Dr-fp--   DWFP       quanti
Dr-cs--   DWNS       quale
Dr-cp--   DWNP       quale

Dt-cn--   DWNN       che
Dt-ms--   DWMS       quanto
Dt-mp--   DWMP       quanti
Dt-fs--   DWFS       quante
Dt-fp--   DWFP       quanti
Dt-cs--   DWNS       quale
Dt-cp--   DWNP       quale

De-cn--   DWNN       che
De-cp--   DWNP       quali
De-cs--   DWNS       quale
De-ms--   DWMS       quanto
De-mp--   DWMP       quanti
De-fs--   DWFS       quanta
De-fp--   DWFP       quante

----------------------- more collapsed -----------------------------
D..fp---  DFP        mie, queste, quante etc.
D..fs---  DFS        mia, questa, quanta etc.
D..mp---  DMP        miei, questi, quanti etc.
D..ms---  DMS        mio, questo, quanto etc.
D..cs---  DNS        quale
D..cp---  DNP        quali
D..cn---  DNN        altrui
----------------------- more collapsed end -----------------------
========= ========== =================================  Combinations

On the basis of the strategy adopted for Pronouns, also for Determiners
two tagsets are proposed.

5.1.6 Articles (T)
------------------ Lexicon

============ =========== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         definite    il          d
             indefinite  un          i
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Gender       masculine   il          m
             feminine    la          f
l-spec       common      l'          c
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Number       singular    la          s
             plural      le          p
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Case         (n.a.)      (n.a.)      -
============ =========== =========== ==== Corpus

======== ========== ==========================================
Tag      Reg.Expr.  Definition
======== ========== ==========================================
RMS      Tdms-      Article, definite, masc.sing.
RMP      Tdmp-      Article, definite, masc.plur.
RFS      Tdfs-      Article, definite, femm.sing.
RFP      Tdfp-      Article, definite, femm.plur.
RNS      Tdcs-      Article, definite, comm.sing.
RIMS     Tims-      Article, indefinite, masc.sing.
RIFS     Tifs-      Article, indefinite, femm.sing.
======== ========== ========================================== Combinations

========= ========  ==========================================
Lexicon   Corpus    Example
========= ========  ==========================================
Tdms-     RMS       il, lo
Tdmp-     RMP       i, gli
Tdfs-     RFS       la
Tdfp-     RFP       le
Tdcs-     RNS       l' (amico/a)
Tims-     RIMS      un, uno
Tifs-     RIFS      una, un'
==================  ==========================================

5.1.7 Adverbs (R)
----------------- Lexicon

============ ====== ===== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         -           -           -
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Degree       positive    bene        p
             superlative benissimo   s
============ =========== =========== ====  Corpus

======= ================== ===========================
Tag     Regular Expression Definition
======= ================== ===========================
B       R-p                Adverb positive
BS      R-s                Adverb superaltive
======= ================== ===========================  Combinations

========= =========== ============================
Lexicon   Corpus      Example
========= =========== ============================
R-p       B           fortemente
R-s       BS          fortissimamente
========= =========== ============================ Observations

The feature Type is not encoded in the Italian lexicon.

5.1.8. Adposition (S)
--------------------- Lexicon

============ =========== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         preposition di, a, da   p
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Formation    simple      di          s
             compound    dello       c
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Gender       masculine   dello       m    This attribute and values
             feminine    alla        f    have been added
l-spec       common      dell'       c
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Number       singular    al          s    This attribute and values
             plural      ai          p    have been added
============ =========== =========== ====  Corpus

======= ================== =====================
Tag     Regular Expression Definition
======= ================== =====================
E       Sp-                Preposition simple
EA      Spc..              Preposition compound
======= ================== =====================  Combinations

========= ================ =======================
Lexicon   Corpus           Example
========= ================ =======================
Sp        E                di
Spcfs     EA               della
Spcfp     EA               delle
Spcms     EA               del, dello
Spcmp     EA               dei, degli
Spccn     EA               dell'
========= ================ ======================= Observations

The Italian policy for encoding fused prepositions foresees to  attach
the  morphological information  of the article to the preposition tag.

5.1.9 Conjunctions (C)
---------------------- Lexicon

============ =========== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         coordinat.  e           c
             subordinat. perche'     s
============ =========== =========== ====  Corpus

======= ================== =========================
Tag     Regular Expression Definition
======= ================== =========================
CC      Cc                 Coordinative conjunction
CS      Cs                 Subordinative conjunction
======= ============================================  Combinations

========= =========== ============================
Lexicon   Corpus      Example
========= =========== ============================
Cc        CC          ma
Cs        CS          perche'
========= =========== ============================

5.1.10 Numerals (M)
------------------- Lexicon

============ =========== =========== ====
Attribute    Value       Example     Code
============ =========== =========== ====
Type         cardinal    cento       c
             ordinal     primo       o
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Gender       masculine   primo       m
             feminine    prima       f
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Number       singular    secondo     s
             plural      secondi     p
------------ ----------- ----------- ----
Case         (n.a.)      (n.a.)      -
============ =========== =========== ====  Corpus

======= ================== ============================
Tag     Regular Expression Definition
======= ================== ============================
NMS     M.ms-              Numeral, masc.sing.
NFS     M.fs-              Numeral, femm.sing.
NMP     M.mp-              Numeral, masc.plur.
NFP     M.fp-              Numeral, femm.plur.
N       Mc---              Numeral cardinal
======= ================================================  Combinations

========= ========= ===============================
Lexicon   Corpus
========= ========= ===============================
M.ms-     NMS       primo
M.fs-     NFS       prima
M.mp-     NMP       primi
M.fp-     NFP       prime
Mc---     N         zero, cento
========= ========= ===============================

5.1.11 Interjection (I)
----------------------- Corpus

======= =========== =====================================
Tag     Reg. Expr.  Definition
======= =========== =====================================
I       I           Interjection
======= =========== ===================================== Combinations

======= =========== =====================================
Lexicon Corpus      Example
======= =========== =====================================
I       I           oh
======= =========== =====================================

5.1.12 Unique membership class (U)


5.1.13. Residual (X)
--------------------  Corpus

======= =================== ====================
Tag     Regular Expression  Definition
======= =================== ====================
NY      ???                 "Guessed" Noun
AY      ???                 "Guessed" Adjective
======= =================== ====================  Combinations

========= ========= ===============================
Lexicon   Corpus    Example
========= ========= ===============================
???       NY        bit
???       AY        computerizzato
========= ========= ===============================  Observations

At corpus  level, we  have the tag SY which  is  used to mark symbols,
letters, acronyms, foreign words, toponyms etc.,  in  general  unknown
words, for which a "guess" is provided.

5.1.13  Punctuation

========= ============================
Tag       Example
========= ============================
punct     .,;:?! etc.
========= ============================